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Thread: Google doodles

  1. #15951
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    28 September 2009

    Confucius' Birthday - China, Hong Kong






    Confucius [c. 551 – c. 479 BCE] was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period who is traditionally considered the paragon of Chinese sages. Confucius's teachings and philosophy underpin East Asian culture and society, remaining influential across China and East Asia to this day.

  2. #15952
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    12 Sept 2022

    Celebrating the Lampang Rooster Bowl







    Cock-a-Doodle-Do! Today’s Doodle celebrates the iconic Lampang Rooster Bowl, a traditional tableware design featuring a black-tailed rooster with peony flowers and banana leaves. This durable kitchenware is so popular in Asia that the Thai government registered the rooster bowl as a Geographical Indication product of Lampang on this day in 2013. This means international trade law affirms the quality and reputation of rooster bowls made in the region!

    The rooster bowl was imported to Thailand from China. In the original artwork, the rooster symbolized hard work while the banana leaf and red peony represented dreams of good fortune.

    In 1957, entrepreneurs opened many rooster kitchenware factories in Thailand’s Lampang province. The region, teeming with clay minerals, was better suited for ceramic manufacturing.

    As Lampang began mass producing tableware with rooster designs, the bowl became one of the region’s best-selling products—bringing financial stability and freedom to Lampang locals.

    Although Lampang continues to manufacture rooster bowls today, few factories can afford to design rooster bowls according to the traditional style and material, causing the original hand-painted rooster bowls to become a rare collector’s item.

    Be sure to check your kitchen cabinets for vintage rooster bowls—they just might bring your family good fortune!

  3. #15953
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    May 26, 2016

    Frankie Manning’s 102nd birthday







    One morning in 1929, Frankie Manning--then only fifteen--was walking through Harlem on his way to Sunday school. Passing the Alhambra Ballroom, he made a decision to take dance classes that would change swing forever. Known as the Ambassador of the Lindy Hop--the exuberant style born in Harlem--Frankie Manning is remembered as the first person to take swing from the dancefloor to the air above it. Today’s doodle by Nate Swinehart celebrates Frankie Manning’s acrobatic, powerful style, in which his partners were flipped and spun to the emphatic horns of Count Basie, Duke Ellington, and others.

    The Lindy Hop and Manning’s aerial flourishes became wildly popular, and Manning himself performed the dance in several 40’s era movies. He also served in WWII, toured South America and the UK with his troupe, The Congaroos, performed the Lindy for King George VI, and won a Tony Award for his choreographic work on the Broadway musical Black and Blue.

    Frankie Manning often described the dance as a “series of three-minute romances.” Here’s to the Ambassador on what would have been his 102nd birthday, and his role in creating for countless people--even if it lasted only three minutes--a moment that transcended the world around them.

  4. #15954
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    2 December 2021

    Georges Seurat’s 162nd birthday





    Today’s Doodle celebrates French painter Georges Seurat, who captured the natural qualities of light in scenes of contemporary Parisian life with his signature painting techniques known as Pointillism and Divisionism. Seurat’s innovative methods gave rise to the school of Neo-Impressionism, an avant-garde 19th century movement that forever changed the course of modern art.

    Georges Seurat was born into a prosperous family in Paris, France, on this day in 1859. He began formal artistic training as a teenager and furthered his education at the prestigious fine arts institution École des Beaux-Arts in 1878. Seurat developed a fascination with the science behind art during his studies, but soon became disenchanted with the confines of academic tradition. He delved into the scientific study of color theory and optical physics to develop an original style he coined “chromo-luminarism,” later known as Pointillism or Divisionism.

    After many drafts on small boards, a meeting with a 100-year-old chemist, and years of experimentation, Seurat finished the painting widely considered his masterpiece at only 26, “A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte — 1884,” now in the Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection, The Art Institute of Chicago. An encapsulation of the Pointillist technique is recreated in the Doodle artwork. When viewed from the proper distance, the mural-sized painting tricks the observer into perceiving over 200,000 tiny brushstrokes and dabs of contrasting color on its canvas as a shimmering, cohesive scene of an island in the Seine outside of Paris.

    Seurat’s obsession with color theory has prompted some art historians to hypothesize that his techniques were influenced by the atmospheric effects of the volcanic eruptions that created some of the most colorful sunsets recorded during the 1800s. Although the exact inspirations for his artistic innovations remain up for debate, Seurat has had an impact on the visual culture. His monumental work has inspired countless artists across disciplines, a Broadway musical, and has even been featured in a blockbuster film.

    Here’s to an artist who never lost sight of the big picture!

  5. #15955
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    17 Sept 2013

    Max Švabinský's 140th Birthday





    Max Švabinský was a Czech painter, draughtsman, graphic artist, and professor in Academy of Graphic Arts in Prague. Švabinský is considered one of the more notable artists in the history of Czech painting and produced significant work during the first half of the 20th century. He was relatively unusual among modernist artists in that his work was accepted by the communist regime; this was due at least in part to his having formed his artistic personality prior to 1900, prior to the advent of cubism. His work was part of the painting event in the art competition at the 1932 Summer Olympics.

  6. #15956
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    18 Sept 2013

    Uzeyir Hacibeyov's 128th Birthday [Azerbaijan]



    Uzeyir bey Abdul Huseyn oglu Hajibeyli was an Azerbaijani composer, conductor, publicist, playwright, and social figure. He is recognized as the father of Azerbaijani composed classical music and opera. Uzeyir Hajibeyov composed the music of the national anthem of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic [which was re-adopted after Azerbaijan regained its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991]. He also composed the anthem used by Azerbaijan during the Soviet period. He was the first composer of an opera in the Islamic world.

  7. #15957
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    18 Sept 2017

    Samuel Johnson’s 308th Birthday





    If you wanted to know what the word 'lexicographer' means today, you might Google it. If you fancy a throwback however, you might grab a dictionary. Today’s Doodle celebrates the 308th birthday of British lexicographer – a person who compiles dictionaries – Samuel Johnson.

    Samuel Johnson published A Dictionary of the English Language in 1755 after 9 years of work. It was described as “one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship,” and had a far-reaching effect on modern English. It was “colossal” at nearly 18 inches tall! Johnson’s was the premier English dictionary until the publication of the Oxford English Dictionary 150 years later.

    Johnson was also a poet, essayist, critic, biographer and editor. Johnson’s dictionary was more than just a word list: his work provided a vast understanding of 18th century's language and culture. His lasting contributions guaranteed him a place in literary history.

    Today we pay homage to this pioneer lexicographer who dedicated years to his craft.
    Doodle by Sophie Diao.

  8. #15958
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    16 Sept 2017

    Emilia Pardo Bazán’s 166th Birthday









    A 19th-century novelist, professor, and women’s rights activist, Emilia Pardo Bazán was a trailblazer in more ways than one. Born in A Coruńa, Spain to a family who believed in the power of education, she took an early interest in literature – and her academic pursuits didn’t stop there. Despite women being forbidden to study science and philosophy, Pardo Bazán became well versed in both by seeking out information on her own.

    She went on to write a number of novels, short stories, and essays, winning her first literary prize in 1876. Her affinity for science also came through in her writing, where her reality-driven descriptions introduced the naturalist movement to Spain. Her signature style was on full display in her two most famous novels, Los pazos de Ulloa [1886] and La madre naturaleza [1887]. In her published works and beyond, Pardo Bazán endlessly championed women’s rights. She also taught at the University of Madrid, where she became the first woman to occupy a chair of literature.

    Inspired by the statue of Pardo Bazán that stands in her hometown, today’s Doodle pays tribute to the prolific author on what would’ve been her 166th birthday.

  9. #15959
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    27 September 2023

    Google's 25th Birthday!



    Today’s Doodle celebrates Google’s 25th year. And while here at Google we’re oriented towards the future, birthdays can also be a time to reflect. Let’s take a walk down memory lane to learn how we were born 25 years ago...

    By fate or luck, doctoral students Sergey Brin and Larry Page met in Stanford University’s computer science program in the late ‘90s. They quickly learned they shared a similar vision: make the World Wide Web a more accessible place. The pair worked tirelessly from their dorm rooms to develop a prototype for a better search engine. As they made meaningful progress on the project, they moved the operation to Google’s first office — a rented garage. On September 27, 1998, Google Inc. was officially born.

    Much has changed since 1998 — including our logo as seen in today’s Doodle — but the mission has remained the same: to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful. Billions of people from all over the globe use Google to search, connect, work, play, and SO much more!

    Thank you for evolving with us over the past 25 years. We can’t wait to see where the future takes us, together.

  10. #15960
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    27 September 2022

    Celebrating Jale İnan




    Today’s Doodle celebrates Dr. Jale İnan, the first female Turkish archaeologist. She famously located the missing half of the Farnese Hercules statue at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston and worked with the government to return the statue to Turkey. The return of the statue was successfully concluded on this day in 2011.

    İnan was born in Istanbul in 1914. Her father, the director of the Istanbul Archaeological Museum, was one of Turkey’s first archeologists. He inspired her interest in the ancient world.

    In the 1930s, she won scholarships to study archeology at the universities of Berlin and Munich. Unfortunately for İnan, World War II began shortly after her arrival in Germany. Despite the war around her, she never lost focus on her studies. She stayed through the war and finished her thesis, “Examination of Art History in Sacrifice Rituals on Roman Coins,” from a bunker in 1943.

    After she completed her PhD, she returned to Turkey and became an assistant to the Chair of Ancient History and Numismatics at University of Istanbul. During this time, she joined an excavation at Perga, an ancient Greek city in Anatolia where she helped unearth one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World: The Temple of Artemis.

    İnan went on to lead the restoration of several significant ancient cultural sites, such as the Temple of Apollo in Side. Over the course of her prolific career, she uncovered so many artifacts that the Antalya Museum had to undergo expansion not once, but twice, to make space for the relics.

    Each year, the Antalya Women's Museum bestows the Dr. Jale İnan Award to a remarkable Turkish woman carrying on her legacy.

  11. #15961
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    31 August 2022

    Julio Ramón Ribeyro's 93rd birthday




    Today’s Doodle celebrates the 93rd birthday of Peruvian author Julio Ramón Ribeyro. Considered one of the greatest Latin American short-story writers of all time, he provided powerful social criticism through the lens of fantasy.

    Ribeyro was born on this day in 1929 in Lima, Peru. He and his three siblings had a middle-class childhood until their father’s untimely death left the family in poverty.

    Ribeyro went on to study arts and law at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru before publishing his first short story, The Grey Life, in Correo Bolivariano magazine in 1948. A few years later, the Institute of Hispanic Culture awarded him a journalism fellowship in Spain.

    Ribeyro published his most famous short story The Featherless Buzzards [[Los gallinazos sin plumas) in 1955, which critics praised for capturing the harsh reality of life in Peruvian slums. After that, he briefly studied French literature at Sorbonne University before dropping out to work as a hotel doorman and factory worker to sustain his writing.

    In 1958, Ribeyro returned to Peru to become a professor at the National University of San Cristobal de Huamanga. Two years later, he finished his first novel Chronicle of San Gabriel. The book, which explores life in an isolated rural Peruvian community, immediately won a national prize.

    After the publication of his book, Ribeyro returned to Paris, where he worked as a journalist, translator and an editor at Agence France Presse over the next 10 years.

    In 1970, Ribeyro became a Peruvian cultural advisor and later an ambassador to UNESCO. Despite his busy schedule as a diplomat, Ribeyro continued writing. By the end of his career, he had published eight volumes of short stories and several novels, essays and plays. His work has been translated into multiple languages. In 1994, he won the prestigious Juan Rulfo Prize for Literature.

    Happy 93rd birthday, Julio Ramón Ribeyro! Your powerful writing continues to change people’s perceptions of the world.

  12. #15962
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    1 September 2017

    First Day of School 2017




    Today is the first day of school in many countries. And the school of fish in our Doodle is ready to dive into the brainy brine! A whale swims toward the classroom, textbooks in fin. A starfish crams in the remainder of its summer reading, and a turtle and friends embark on their first science project.

    Here's hoping our seagoing scholars inspire you to have a great school year!

  13. #15963
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    September 1, 2011

    Tarsila do Amaral's 125th Birthday






    Besides the 230 paintings, hundreds of drawings, illustrations, prints, murals, and five sculptures, Tarsila's legacy is her effect on the direction of Latin American art. Tarsila moved modernism forward in Latin America, and developed a style unique to Brazil. Following her example, other Latin American artists were influenced to begin utilizing indigenous Brazilian subject matter, and developing their own style. The Amaral Crater on Mercury is named after her.

    In 2018 MoMA opened a solo exhibition of her work.

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    28 September 2011

    Narciso Monturiol's 192nd Birthday






    Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol was a Spanish inventor, artist and engineer born in Figueres, Girona, Catalonia, Spain. He was the inventor of the first air-independent and combustion-engine-driven submarine.

  15. #15965
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    7 Oct 2009

    Invention of the Bar Code




    A barcode or bar code is a method of representing data in a visual, machine-readable form. Initially, barcodes represented data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines.

  16. #15966
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    28 September 2023

    Teachers' Day [Taiwan]



  17. #15967
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    28 September 2009

    Confucius' Birthday - Multiple Countries


  18. #15968
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    16 September 2019

    Mexico Independence Day 2019




    Today’s animated Doodle, illustrated by Mexico-based guest artist Dia Pacheco, depicts indigenous Mexican crafts and textiles—particularly Oaxacan embroidery and the traditional children’s toys known as rehilete or pinwheels—in honor of Mexican Independence Day. Doodler artist Sophie Diao, inspired by Dia’s work, added to the festivities by animating the rehiletes. This national holiday commemorates Mexico becoming a free nation.

    In the town of Dolores, on el dieciséis de Septiembre [September 16th] 1810, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang a bell and delivered his famous cry of independence El Grito de la Independencia, motivating fellow Mexicans to rise up against Spanish rule. Although Hidalgo was captured the following year, the battle had begun. To this day, Mexico’s president pays respect to this historic moment at Mexico City’s National Palace.

    Mexico’s national colors—red, white, and green—flood every public place at this time of year as horns, whistles, confetti, and shouts of "Viva Mexico" and "Viva la independencia” fill the streets. Woven as they are into the fabric of this rich culture, traditional Mexican crafts, clothing, and textiles, are very much a part of the festivities, along with food, music, dancing, and fireworks.

    ˇViva Mexico!

  19. #15969
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    16 September 2023

    Mexico Independence Day 2023



    Today’s Doodle, illustrated by Mexican guest artist Ulises Mendicutty, celebrates Mexico’s Independence Day. On this day in 1810, the country began its fight for independence. After a decade-long struggle, Mexico officially became a sovereign nation.

    The anniversary commemorates when a local priest in Dolores, Mexico rang the church bell to summon townspeople. The priest gave an inspiring speech now known as the Cry of Dolores, encouraging the listeners to revolt against Spanish rule.

    On Independence Day eve, the President of Mexico rings that same bell before reciting the Cry of Dolores. Onlookers dress in national colors and wave the green, white, and red Mexican flag. Colors of the Mexican flag are represented in today’s Doodle artwork which celebrates the “Golden Age of Mexican Cinema” when Mexico's film industry blossomed in the 1940s and 1950s.

    Happy Independence Day, Mexico!

  20. #15970
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    16 September 2014

    40th anniversary of the first broadcast of Casimir




    The spotlight is on Casimir the Dinosaur on our homepage in France today. Casimir starred in the famous French cartoon “l'Île aux enfants” [“The Children’s Show”], which first aired 40 years ago today.

  21. #15971
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    29 September 2023

    Mihály Csíkszentmihályi's 89th Birthday



    Today’s Doodle celebrates the 89th birthday of Mihály Csíkszentmihályi, a Hungarian-American psychologist who pioneered the scientific study of happiness and creativity as well as coining the term “flow”: the mental state of completely absorbing oneself in an activity. It’s a state of optimal performance and well-being that is characterized by focus, enjoyment, and fulfillment.

    Csíkszentmihályi was born on this day in 1934 in Fiume [then part of Imperial Italy]. His family struggled financially as a result of the economic downturn caused by WWII. Consequently, Csíkszentmihályi dropped out of school to help support his family. The profound suffering that Csíkszentmihályi witnessed during the war inspired him to dedicate his life to understanding the science of happiness. He turned to art, philosophy, and religion as he sought answers. In this exploration, he stumbled upon a lecture by Carl Jung, who spoke of the traumatized psyches of Europeans after World War II, and how their mental states caused them to project the UFO sightings into the sky. This interesting study led him to psychology.

    He moved to the U.S. at 22 to study psychology at the University of Chicago. His interest in flow began during his graduate studies, when he observed painters so absorbed in their work they lost track of time and would disregard basic survival cues for food, water, and sleep. Several of his interview subjects described their experiences through the metaphor of a water current, thus the term “flow state” was born. He graduated with a PhD in Positive Developmental Psychology in 1965.

    Csíkszentmihályi's book Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience was published in 1990 and has since been translated into more than 20 languages. Business leaders, presidents, and sports coaches have praised its scientific insights into the nature of productivity and well-being.

    Csíkszentmihályi went on to become a Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Management at Claremont Graduate University. He founded and co-directed the Quality of Life Research Center. He was also a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and earned several prestigious awards, including the Clifton Strengths Prize and the Széchenyi Prize.

    Happy 89th birthday, Mihály Csíkszentmihályi!

  22. #15972
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    29 September 2015

    Evidence of water found on Mars




    Today’s news stirred us like a long, cool drink in the blistering heat. Science has gestured at the presence of water on Mars before, but evidence of liquid water--briny, creeping flows that appear in a crater during Martian summers--has tremendous implications in the search for life beyond our planet. We felt compelled to honor such an exciting discovery with a Doodle, and staring at satellite images of Mars for inspiration made Doodler Nate Swinehart really, really thirsty.

  23. #15973
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    29 September 2016

    Ladislao José Biro’s 117th birthday



    You may not know the name Ladislao José Bíro, but you certainly know his most famous invention: the ballpoint pen.

    Bíro was born in Budapest, Hungary, into a Jewish family. A journalist by trade, Bíro noticed how efficiently newspapers were printed and how quickly the ink dried – in stark contrast to his fountain pen. He worked with his brother, György Bíro, a chemist, to develop a new type of pen made up of a ball that turned in a socket. As the ball turned, it picked up ink from a cartridge and rolled to deposit it on paper, much like a newsprint roller transfers an inked image to paper.

    Bíro presented the first prototype of the ballpoint pen at the Budapest International Fair in 1931, later patenting his invention in 1938. To this day, the ballpoint pen is still referred to as the “Biro” in several countries.

    Today we celebrate Bíro and his relentless, forward-thinking spirit on the 117th anniversary of his birth.

  24. #15974
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    21 December 2020

    Celebrating Summer 2020 and The Great Conjunction! [Southern Hemisphere]


    As Earth’s Southern Hemisphere welcomes summer and winds down from the longest day of the year, it seems Jupiter and Saturn have decided to put on quite an unusual show for the world to see!

    The two largest planets in our solar system will nearly overlap to form a “double planet,” an event that hasn’t been easily visible since the Middle Ages—almost 800 years ago. Today’s animated Doodle celebrates the Southern Hemisphere’s first day of summer as well as this rare double planet sighting–or “Great Conjunction”–which can be viewed from anywhere around the globe!

    So what exactly is creating this celestial phenomenon? Based on their orbits, from our vantage point on Earth, Jupiter and Saturn will cross within .1 degrees of each other [a fraction of the width of the full moon], a once-in-a-lifetime rendezvous recreated in the Doodle artwork. But looks can be deceiving, as the two gas giants will actually remain a vast distance of approximately 450 million miles apart!

    Make sure you look out low above the horizon tonight and take in this momentous meet-and-greet between Jupiter and Saturn–it’s sure to be out of this world!

  25. #15975
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    27 Sept 2016

    Google's 18th Birthday




    Doodler Gerben Steenks designed today’s Doodle in celebration of Google’s 18th birthday.

  26. #15976
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    27 September 2015

    Mid Autumn Festival 2015 [Vietnam]




    Today’s Doodle marks the approach of the Mid-Autumn moon, a spectacular sight whose effulgence and good tidings have enraptured its beholders for centuries. Steeped in myth and ushered in by poetry, song, and dance, the Vietnamese Mid-Autumn Festival is a celebration of posterity, togetherness, and the life-giving wonders of a bountiful harvest.

  27. #15977
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    30 September 2023

    Ferdinand Berthier’s 220th Birthday




    Today’s Doodle celebrates Deaf French educator and intellectual Ferdinand Berthier. He was one of the first advocates for Deaf culture in a time when those who had hearing differences were outcast by society.

    Berthier was born in Saône-et-Loire, France on this day in 1803. As an eight-year old Deaf child, he started attending the National Institute for the Deaf in Paris. His parents hoped he would learn basic vocational and literacy skills to prepare him for a job as a tradesman. However, Berthier thrived in school and drew inspiration from his teachers [such as Laurent Clerc] to pursue a career in education. After further schooling, he returned to teach at the National Institute for the Deaf. By age 27, he became one of the school’s most senior professors.

    In 1834, Berthier organized the first silent banquet for Deaf Frenchmen. In the following years, women, journalists, and government officials began to attend the annual event. Berthier also successfully petitioned the French government to create an organization that represented the Deaf community's interests. The Société Centrale des Sourds-muets was born. The first formalized group of its kind, it helped organize adult education classes and mutual aid efforts for people with Deafness.

    After becoming a public figure through those initiatives, Berthier used his newfound fame to spotlight other inspiring Deaf people and teachings. He wrote books about the history of sign language and biographies about those who fought for Deaf rights, often referencing sign-language poets as authors in his work. Meanwhile, he pushed Société Centrale des Sourds-muets to become a global organization. In 1849, Berthier received the Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur — the first Deaf person to be awarded France’s highest honor.

    Berthier remains one of the key activists for Deaf rights, and his efforts advanced education and perception of the deaf and hard-of-hearing community across Europe and America. Today, silent banquets are still held around the world.

    Berthier's work also helped to raise awareness of the importance of sign language and Deaf culture, and to promote the use of sign language in Deaf education. As a result of the hard work and advocacy of Berthier, Deaf and hard of hearing people are now able to enjoy more of their human rights than ever before including access to medical care, and the right to drive vehicles.

    Happy Birthday, Ferdinand Berthier!

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    30 September 2010

    Flintstones' 50th Anniversary




    As a young kid, I drew a lot of dinosaurs. My dad would bring home reams of dot matrix printer paper from work, which I'd take, fold into stapled booklets, and then fill with dinosaurs doing what dinosaurs did best — eating, leaping about, facing off in epic combat on top of spewing volcanoes. What I didn't know was that dinosaurs were also quite handy. A brontosaurus tail made an excellent water slide, you could walk up a row of plates on a stegosaurus' back like a flight of stairs, and the triceratops' horns were actually cutting-edge can openers. For these paleontological insights into Stone Aged innovation, I have the Flintstones to thank.

    The Flintstones may have lived in the prehistoric town of Bedrock, but their technology was on par with much of what we use today. Everyone drove human-powered vehicles [zero emissions!], composted scraps in a dinosaur under the kitchen sink, and even wore solar powered watches—that is, if you count sundials. In short, Bedrock was the modern city of the past... and I wanted to live in it! Unfortunately, that didn’t quite pan out, but to be able to pay tribute to one of my favorite childhood TV shows in the form of a Google doodle is easily the next best thing.

    On the 50th anniversary of its first airing, we gladly salute “The Flintstones” for inspiring our imaginations and encouraging us to think outside of the box, even if it means taking a look back now and then. I hope you’ll join the rest of us here at Google in a little nostalgia to mark this fun occasion!

    Oh, and if you know any saber-toothed tigers looking for an internship as a hole puncher, give me a buzz.

    posted by Mike Dutton

  29. #15979
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    Sep 30, 2020

    Celebrating the Dachshund Bobblehead




    Today’s Doodle celebrates the dachshund bobblehead, an iconic weiner dog doll with a wobbly, spring-attached head that originated in Germany as a friendly vehicle accessory. The first verifiable reference to the breed traces back to this date in 1723, with its inclusion in Johann Friedrich von Flemming’s book “Der vollkommene teutsche Jäger” [“The Complete German Hunter”].

    The dachshund has long been recognized as a popular German symbol. That special status was only strengthened in the 1970s with the manufacture of the first daschund bobbleheads, known affectionately in German as the “Wackeldackel”–or “wobbling dachshund” in English. The agreeable canines could soon be found perched on the rear dash of traditional German notchback cars, nodding along to every twist and bump in the road.

    After the Wackeldackel was featured in a late-’90s German advertisement, the bobblehead came howling back to prominence with over 500,000 sold in just eight months.

    Keep an eye out for these four-legged passengers on the road! You never know when you might spot a hot dog in the back of a hot rod.
    Last edited by 9A; 09-30-2023 at 06:37 AM.

  30. #15980
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    29 Sept 2008

    Miguel de Cervantes' Birthday



    Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra [29 September 1547 [assumed] – 22 April 1616 NS] was an Early Modern Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. He is best known for his novel Don Quixote, a work often cited as both the first modern novel and "the first great novel of world literature". A 2002 poll of around 100 well-known authors voted it the "most meaningful book of all time", from among the "best and most central works in world literature".

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    4 October 2016

    434th Anniversary of the Introduction of the Gregorian Calendar




    From October 5–October 14, 1582, time was erased. Not literally, of course; just on the calendar. These ten days were declared non-existent by then-pope Gregory XIII as part of a realignment of the Julian calendar, implemented by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C. In the mid-1570s, it was discovered that the Julian calendar was actually 10 days behind the seasons of the year. For example, Easter began falling later in the spring than it should have and eventually would have drifted into summer. The calendar creep was the result of the solar year [the time it takes Earth to make one revolution around the sun] being around 11 minutes shy of the full Julian calendar. To be precise, the solar year is actually 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds.

    Pope Gregory saved the day [and season] by appointing a commission to solve the problem. It took five years, but eventually the group, led by physician Aloysius Lilius and astronomer Christopher Clavius, proposed eliminating three leap years every 400 years to keep the calendar on track. To transition to the Gregorian calendar, ten days were declared officially non-existent, with the day after October 4, 1582 declared October 15th. First implemented by Italy, Spain, and Portugal, the Gregorian calendar is today’s most widely used system.

  32. #15982
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    18 Oct 2020

    Benedict Sandin's 102nd birthday


    Today’s Doodle celebrates the 102nd birthday of Sarawak-born folklorist and ethnographer Benedict Sandin, who served as the curator of the oldest museum in Borneo: the Sarawak Museum. A member of the Iban–one of the largest Indigenous ethnic groups in what is now Malaysia–Sandin earned scholarly acclaim as one of the world’s foremost experts on the Iban and dedicated his life to the preservation of his native heritage.

    Benedict Sandin was born Sandin anak Attat on this date in 1918 in Sarawak, today a state in the country of Malaysia. His father first introduced him to the poetic Iban language, which Sandin went on to master and champion. In 1941, Sandin began work in the Sarawak civil service, and his gift for writing eventually led to an assignment as the editor of Pembrita—the first news publication in the Iban language. His articles attracted the attention of the Sarawak Museum’s curator, who recruited him to join the museum’s staff in a special post in 1952.


    Soon after, Sandin was accepted to a UNESCO fellowship program in New Zealand, through which he studied museum techniques and anthropology. He returned home determined to chronicle the Iban history, culture, and language by absorbing and recording the wisdom of local genealogists, bards, and historians. As a testament to Sandin’s invaluable ethnographic achievements, he was named the Curator of the Sarawak Museum and Government Ethnologist in 1966, a position he held for the better part of a decade.

    Thank you, Benedict Sandin, for safeguarding and preserving Indigenous tradition and heritage for generations to come.

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    8 February 2023

    Kamn Ismail 's 67th Birthday


    Today’s animated Doodle celebrates the 67th birthday of Kamn Ismail, a cartoonist and pioneer in Malaysian animation. He created Keluang Man, Malaysia’s first superhero, and played a pivotal role in modernizing the country’s animation industry.

    Ismail was born on this day in 1956 in Pengkalan Balak, Malacca, a small town by the sea. He fell in love with drawing as a child and dreamed of becoming a comic artist. When he was a teenager, his skills attracted the attention of McMillen Film Company, which hired him to oversee the creative aspects of a movie called Paper Tiger.

    Ismail wanted to continue his career as a cartoonist but his father cautioned him against it. He feared Malaysia’s emerging animation industry couldn’t give his son a stable income.

    Ismail reluctantly put his aspirations on hold. For the next 17 years, he worked as a clerk and held several positions at the Keretapi Tanah Melayu railway. But Ismail never gave up on his dreams and secretly learned computer animation techniques in his spare time.

    His skills eventually landed him an opportunity to work for Kharisma Pictures. He trained the company’s animators and directed Malaysia’s first animated television series, Usop Sontorian, in 1996. Soon after, Ismail became a director at UAS Animation Studios, where he created the hit animation series Keluang Man. He brought the character to life by blending 2D and 3D animation. An innovative technique for its time, Ismail helped modernize Malaysia’s animation industry.

    Ismail’s work has won numerous prizes such as the Best Animated Film at Malaysia Film Festival and was awarded as a Malaysian Animation Icon.

    Happy 67th birthday to the father of Malaysian animation!

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    13 September 2019

    Mid Autumn Festival 2019 [China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia]


    Today’s Doodle represents the Mid-Autumn Festival, one of the most important annual holidays in East Asia. The event, also known as the Moon Festival, takes place every year on the first full moon after the fall equinox, traditionally the fifteenth day of the eighth month of the lunar calendar. Originally celebrated in China for thousands of years, the festival spread from the royal classes to the common folk and eventually all across the region⁠—including Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Malaysia with each local culture adding its own customs.

    No Moon Festival is complete without mooncakes, traditionally baked or steamed at home but now sold everywhere in a wide range of flavors from savory to sweet. In China, this is a time for joyful family reunions and making offerings to the moon. After a traditional meal of duck and taro [preferably served at the grandparents' home], Chinese families offer mooncakes and special fruits to the moon before sharing mooncakes together.

    In Hong Kong, lantern carnivals take place all over the country, the biggest of all in Victoria Park on Hong Kong Island. Besides admiring the elaborate lanterns, visitors can try answering lantern riddle quizzes or visiting the Tai Hang Fire Dragon Dance near Hong Kong’s Causeway Bay.

    In Taiwan, the Mid-Autumn Festival is a time for telling stories about the moon, including the legend of Chang’e the Moon Goddess of Immortality and the Jade Rabbit. Some families organize moon-gazing trips or barbecue by moonlight. Children use the rind of the pomelo, a large citrus fruit, to make hats for good luck.

    Malaysia celebrates Mid-Autumn Festival with a lantern parade. In Penang, the parade is known as a “River of Lights,” while the streets of Kuala Lumpur are filled with dragon and lion dances, as well as colorful floats depicting Chang’e and other Moon Festival characters.

    中秋快乐! Happy Mid-Autumn Festival!
    Last edited by 9A; 10-01-2023 at 06:03 AM.

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    9 October 2022

    Hangul Day 2022




    Today’s Doodle, illustrated by Seoul-based guest artist Joonho Brian Ko, celebrates Hangul Day [한글날]. This holiday honors the advent of the modern Korean alphabet [[Hangul), which dramatically increased literacy rates across Korea.

    Before Hangul, Koreans did not have a written form of their native language. Instead, they used a complex mix of characters from Chinese and other writing systems—which made it difficult for less-educated people to learn to read and write.

    With the goal of improving literacy, a modern alphabet was created with 24 letters, 14 consonants and 10 vowels. The letters consist of simple strokes and sounds that reflect the spoken word. Today’s Doodle artwork depicts a workshop with women from the Joseon dynasty, who have been known for popularizing Hangul after it was developed.

    To encourage its use, popular poems, verses and proverbs were translated into Hangul. This efficient writing system allowed Koreans of all ages and classes to learn to communicate through text and significantly boosted literacy. Korea’s nationwide literacy rate is nearly 100% today!

    Koreans celebrate the holiday by taking the day off of school and work to reflect on this writing system. One way they do this is by exploring the National Hangeul Museum, where exhibits showcase Hangul letters and their impact on the country.

    Happy Hangul Day, Korea!

  36. #15986
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    30 Sept 2023

    Celebrating the Ain Ghazal Statues


    Today's hand-crafted Doodle celebrates the Ain Ghazal statues — roughly 9,000 years old and considered one of the earliest large-scale representations of the human form. On this day in 1983, the statues were discovered in Jordan.

    Why did ancient sculptors create these statues? Researchers still don’t have concrete answers. However, it is known that after the statues served its purpose, our prehistoric ancestors strategically buried the sculptures, aligning them east to west.

    Archeologists discovered the first cache of underground statues in 1983 and a second group of sculptures in 1985 at ‘Ain Ghazal, a Neolithic site in Jordan.

    The Ain Ghazal figures depict men, women, and children with intricate human features such as almond-shaped eyes, prominent noses, and realistic legs, toes, and toenails.

    The statues have gained global appeal and can be viewed today at galleries such as the Jordan Museum, Jordan Archaeological Museum, British Museum, and Louvre Abu Dhabi to ponder the mysteries of the past.

  37. #15987
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    2 October 2023

    Celebrating the Appalachian Trail

    https://www.google.com/webhp?ddllb=1...8615&hl=en

    Today’s slideshow Doodle celebrates the Appalachian Trail — click the Doodle to explore the 2,190-mile footpath that spans across 14 U.S. states!




    The Appalachian trail is the longest hiking-only footpath in the world, and has served sightseeing hikers for nearly 100 years. It traverses through dense forests, across rushing rivers, and over mountain summits along the east coast. On this day in 1968 The National Trails System Act established the Appalachian Trail as one of the country’s first National Scenic Trails.

    Benton MacKaye, a forester, conservationist, and lifelong outdoorsman, first proposed the idea in 1921. His original plan, titled An Appalachian Trail: A Project in Regional Planning, outlined a stretch of several self-sustaining agricultural camps along the way. Many like-minded people started joining his cause, and the community eventually became known as the Appalachian Trail Conference.

    In 1937, thanks to combined efforts of many trailblazers, the Appalachian Trail became fully connected from Springer Mountain in Georgia to Mount Katahdin in Maine. Ten years later, a hiker named Earl Shaffer reported the first thru-hike from end-to-end and ignited a wave of interest. Over fourteen thousand people have completed the trek since.

    President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the National Trails System Act in 1968, which declared the Appalachian Trail as one of the first national scenic trails and recognized it as federal land. Finally, in 2014, the last major stretch of land was acquired, turning initial dreams for the trail into reality.

    Nowadays, in a collaborative effort to conserve its natural glory, the National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, Appalachian Trail Conservancy, and many volunteers maintain and manage the historic footpath. Thousands of pathfinders visit the route each year with the intention of completing the four- to six-month long thru-hike.

    Happy trails!

    Doodle artist, Nate Swinehart, trekked to the Appalachian Trail to conduct research for today’s Doodle!Check out behind-the-scenes photos from his trip:

    Painting on the trail in Maine



    Clingman’s Dome in the Smoky Mountains, Tennessee



    The Hunt Trailhead, the final 10 mile stretch to the Northern Terminus on Mt. Katahdin, Maine



    Viewpoint at McAfee’s Knob, Virgina
    Last edited by 9A; 10-02-2023 at 08:16 AM.

  38. #15988
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    2 October 2009

    Brazil Wins 2016 Olympics




    Christ The Redeemer is an Art Deco statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, created by French sculptor Paul Landowski and built by Brazilian engineer Heitor da Silva Costa, in collaboration with French engineer Albert Caquot. Romanian sculptor Gheorghe Leonida sculpted the face. Constructed between 1922 and 1931, the statue is 30 metres [98 ft)] high, excluding its 8-metre [26 ft] pedestal.
    Last edited by 9A; 10-02-2023 at 06:51 AM.

  39. #15989
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    2 October 2009

    Birthday of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi




    The doodle to celebrate of Mohandas Gandhi's birthday is both my first illustration since joining the doodle team and a project that is very dear to me. As a prominent figure for peace and non-violent resistance, Gandhi is an icon whose legacy I could not readily distill into one representation. The early stages of the project saw the development of a second version that depicted Gandhi journeying through the desert with his signature walking stick. In order to decide which doodle best portrayed him, I consulted hundreds of Google employees both in the US and in our offices in India. The simple indigo drawing of Gandhi on khadi cloth made it to our homepage, but the alternate version can still live here!



    posted by Jennifer Hom
    Last edited by 9A; 10-02-2023 at 06:57 AM.

  40. #15990
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    2 October 2019

    Sir William Ramsay’s 167th Birthday


    Today’s Doodle celebrates the life and work of Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsey, whose research led to the discovery of an unknown group of elements known as the noble gases. Born in Glasgow on this day in 1852, Sir Ramsay’s work led to groundbreaking advances in thermodynamics and nuclear physics.

    After traveling to Germany, where he earned his doctorate at the University of Tübingen, Ramsay returned home with a reputation for innovative experimental techniques. As chair of chemistry at University College, London, he published numerous papers and books on liquids and vapors.

    Ramsay was intrigued when another British physicist, Lord Rayleigh, observed that nitrogen in the earth’s atmosphere had a higher atomic weight than nitrogen in the laboratory. In 1894, he and Lord Rayleigh announced the discovery of a chemically inert gas, which they named argon.

    While searching for argon, Ramsay found helium, which had been previously thought to exist only in the sun. Ramsay’s 1896 book The Gases of the Atmosphere predicted the existence of at least 3 more noble gases. Reducing air to low temperatures at high pressure, his team proceeded to identify neon, krypton, and xenon, reshaping the periodic table of elements forever.

    Because of their chemical inertness, noble gases proved useful in many ways. For instance, helium replaced flammable hydrogen for lighter-than-air travel, and argon was used in lightbulbs.

    Described by many as the “greatest chemical discoverer of his time,” Ramsay became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1888, was knighted in 1902, and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904.

  41. #15991
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    2 October 2019

    National Batik Day 2019




    Today’s Doodle celebrates and was made using Batik, a technique for decorating fabric using wax and pigment to create complex, colorful patterns. Batik artisans cover fabric with a wax design, add dye, and finally remove the wax to reveal the pattern underneath. Repeating the process with different colored dyes can create intricate, multi-layered designs to adorn textiles and clothing.

    Indonesia has been known for its Batik since the 4th or 5th century, and it has been said that Indonesian batik dye techniques and designs are as numerous as its islands. The designs and colors vary in accordance with the villages and ethnic groups that have spread out in different islands.

    In Java, batik fabric historically lent itself naturally to fashion, art, and culture, because cotton and beeswax were readily available. Specific patterns and colors came to be associated with well-known families, or to bring health or good fortune. Members of the Javanese royal court created exquisite batik prints using finely woven textiles imported from Europe and India. Indonesian craftspeople proved to be ingenious with batik methods, innovating techniques such as woodblock printing.

    Batik has been both an art and craft for centuries and is part of an ancient tradition. The word batik is derived from the Javanese word ‘amba’, means ‘to write’, the suffix ‘titik’ means little dot or to make dots. In a manuscript on a lontar leaf originating from around 1520 AD which was found in Galuh, Southern Cirebon [West Java], it is written that batik also means ‘seratan,’ which in Javanese means ‘writing.’

    Eventually, batik came to be known as the fabric of Indonesia. For those in Indonesia today, this would be a good time to wear your best batik clothing in honor of this traditional art form and the skilled artisans who create it.

    Happy National Batik Day, Indonesia!
    Last edited by 9A; 10-02-2023 at 07:08 AM.

  42. #15992
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    3 October 2021

    Teachers' Day 2021 [Ukraine]


  43. #15993
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    3 October 2019

    German Reunification Day 2019




    Today’s Doodle, illustrated by Hamburg-based guest artist Lisa Tegtmeier, celebrates the Tag der Deutschen Einheit, or German Reunification Day. A 1990 treaty known as the Einigungsvertrag designated October 3rd as the day when the separate nations of East and West Germany were transformed into one state, the Federal Republic of Germany, ending almost forty years of division. The anniversary of this treaty is now a national holiday commemorating the spirit of unity in Germany. As Germany prepares to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin wall, this holiday has assumed even greater importance.

    On German Reunification Day, an open-air fair takes place near Berlin’s Brandenburg Gate, featuring stage shows, food stalls, games, and other family-friendly activities. Each year one of Germany’s 16 states hosts a Bürgerfest, or citizens’ festival. This year is Schleswig-Holstein’s turn, and the northwestern state has chosen the theme Mut verbindet, or “courage connects.” To mark the occasion, the state is encouraging each of Germany’s 82 million citizens to plant a tree, envisioning a new forest in honor of German unity.

    Glücklich Tag der Deutschen Einheit!

  44. #15994
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    3 October 2017

    Gerardo Murillo's [Dr. Atl] 142nd Birthday




    Today's Doodle celebrates "Dr. Atl," born Gerardo Murillo in Guadalajara in 1875.

    In a time of revolution and renaissance, Murillo greatly influenced Mexico’s political and cultural identity. He was an activist, artist, writer, journalist, and overall cultural leader.

    Murillo pioneered the idea of artistic nationalism. To show his pride in his Mexican heritage, he took on the name "Atl," meaning water in Náhuatl. He worked his entire life to promote Native Mexican culture, writing extensively on folk art, music, and dance.

    Murillo loved nature, and in volcanoes, he found his greatest inspiration. He frequently hiked to Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl, living and painting on the volcanic slopes for weeks at a time. In 1943, he witnessed the birth of Paricutín and documented the experience in his book Cómo nace y crece un volcán, el Paricutín [How a Volcano Is Born and Grows – Paricutín].

    For his contributions to the artistic and cultural heritage of Mexico, he was awarded the Belisario Domínguez Medal of Honor and the National Arts Award.

    Today’s Doodle, by artist Julian Ardila, depicts Murillo painting one of his beloved volcanoes.

    ˇFeliz Cumpleańos, Dr. Atl!

  45. #15995
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    3 October 2007

    Sputnik - 50th Anniversary




    The Sputnik rocket was an uncrewed orbital carrier rocket designed by Sergei Korolev in the Soviet Union, derived from the R-7 Semyorka ICBM. On 4 October 1957, it was used to perform the world's first satellite launch, placing Sputnik 1 into a low Earth orbit.
    Last edited by 9A; 10-03-2023 at 05:46 AM.

  46. #15996
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    2 May 2022

    Celebrating Elijah McCoy







    Today’s Doodle celebrates the birthday of Elijah McCoy, a Black Canadian-American engineer and inventor who revolutionized train efficiency with his inventions. He held 57 patents in his lifetime, most of which were related to locomotives and railways.

    In 1837, McCoy’s parents bravely escaped a life of enslavement in Kentucky through the Underground Railroad and sought freedom in Canada. Elijah was born in Colchester, Ontario and returned to the U.S. with his family at a young age. He grew up with a passion for problem-solving, mechanics, and trains. At age 15, he decided to further his education in the field and moved to Edinburgh, Scotland to become a mechanical engineer apprentice.

    Upon his return, McCoy settled in Michigan as opportunities to find work in Canada were very limited. In 1866, Black Americans faced rampant racial discrimination, which made finding a job that aligned with his level of experience in mechanical engineering extremely difficult. He joined the Michigan Central Railroad as a fireman and oiler, and quickly identified how inefficient it was to have to stop trains every few miles in order to manually lubricate their engines.

    Six years into his role, McCoy addressed this issue by inventing what was colloquially known as an “oil-drip cup.” The cup caused oil to steadily flow around the engine without needing to stop the train. Consequently, McCoy obtained his first patent, “Improvement in Lubricators for Steam Engines.” Future variations of his invention were later used to revolutionize oil-drilling and mining equipment along with construction and factory tools.

    McCoy continued to design new inventions while working as a consultant to engineering companies, including patents for a lawn sprinkler and ironing board. He eventually founded the Elijah McCoy Manufacturing Company in 1920, which produced lubrication devices displaying his name.

    In 2001, Elijah McCoy was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in Akron, Ohio and has a dedicated exhibit in the Detroit Historical Museum. McCoy’s innovations and ingenuity kept trains chugging and have laid the tracks for the well-oiled machines of today.

    Happy birthday, Elijah McCoy!

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    2 May 2016

    Mario Miranda’s 90th birthday






    Mario Miranda was a beloved cartoonist best known for his works in the Times of India and The Illustrated Weekly of India. Based primarily on the bustling cityscape of Mumbai, Miranda’s works often feature complex, multi-layered scenes. Humanity floods the canvas and yet each character maintains their individuality.

    Our guest Doodler today is Aaron Renier, another artist known for portraying large crowds. “I approached Mario’s work by pretending I was drawing with him,” says Renier. “I chose his most popular style, very flat with criss-crossing interactions.” In this homage to Miranda, we see a rich litany of people, each unique in their perspective. “That is what I liked most about his work,” Renier explains, “trying to pick out who knows who, who's watching who, who's annoyed by who, who's enamored by who. Hopefully people will see something of [Miranda’s] spirit in it.”

    Mario Miranda’s works live on throughout India, and on what would have been his 90th birthday, we honor his legacy.

  48. #15998
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    3 Sept 2009
    Doraemon 2009



    Doraemon is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Fujiko F. Fujio. The manga was first serialized in December 1969. Its chapters were collected in 45 tankōbon volumes published by Shogakukan from 1974 to 1996. The story revolves around an earless robotic cat named Doraemon, who travels back in time from the 22nd century to aid a boy named Nobita Nobi.

    The manga spawned a media franchise. Three anime TV series have been adapted in 1973, 1979, and 2005. Additionally, Shin-Ei Animation has produced over forty animated films, including two 3D computer-animated films, all of which are distributed by Toho. Various types of merchandise and media have been developed, including soundtrack albums, video games, and musicals.

  49. #15999
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    16 July 2021

    Elizeth Cardoso's 101st birthday




    Today’s Doodle celebrates the birthday of Brazilian actor and singer Elizeth “The Divine” Cardoso. Her 1958 album “Cançăo do Amor Demais” [“Too Much Love Song”] is widely regarded as the first true bossa nova album, a hybrid style of breezy jazz and traditional Brazilian music that captured the stylistic evolutions of the era.

    On this day in 1920, Elizete Moreira Cardoso was born into a family of musicians in Rio de Janeiro and debuted as a singer at just five years old. Her first major break occurred at her 16th birthday party when an introduction to popular Brazilian musician Jacob do Bandolim changed her life.

    Eager to share her rare vocal gift, Bandolim landed Cardoso an opening gig for a stacked lineup of Brazilian musicians in 1936, including the likes of Noel Rosa and Araci de Almeida. Cardoso’s fame continued to grow into the 1940s with regular appearances alongside this superstar group and by performing everywhere from circuses to ballrooms. In 1950, Cardoso recorded her first hit, "Cançăo de Amor" [“Love Song”]. The explosion of popular reception for this single paved the way for a fruitful musical career that was soon followed by success as an actor in both TV and film.

    Cardoso became an international sensation in the following decades; her heartfelt spin on Brazilian music garnered standing ovations [with one lasting 15 minutes!]2 and enchanted audiences globally on world tours well into the 1980s. In 2007, Rolling Stone Brazil listed Cardoso’s “Cançăo do Amor Demais” among the nation’s top 100 albums of all time.

    Happy birthday, Elizeth Cardoso!
    Last edited by 9A; 10-04-2023 at 06:09 AM.

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    17 July 2021

    Francisco Toledo's 81st birthday


    Today’s Doodle celebrates the 81st birthday of Mexican artist and activist Francisco “El Maestro” Toledo, who is widely regarded as one of the most influential artists in modern Mexican history. His prolific creative output is only rivaled in scope by his philanthropic advocacy and dedication to preserving his Oaxacan heritage.

    On this day in 1940, Francisco Benjamín López Toledo was born in Juchitán, Oaxaca, the heartland of the Indigenous Zapotec civilization. His remarkable talent for drawing was noticed at just 9 years old, and by 19, he hosted his first solo exhibition.

    Self-described as a grillo [cricket], which he believed captured the restless Oaxacan spirit, Toledo set off to Paris to pursue sculpting, painting, and printmaking in the 1960s. But he soon yearned for the simpler life of his home. He returned to Oaxaca in 1965, where his craft and activism played an instrumental role in the transformation of the southern Mexican state into a nucleus of the international art community. Toledo first garnered widespread acclaim during this era with a watercolor series of animal-human hybrids, which established his trademark style rooted in Indigenous art traditions, Zapotec mythology, and inspiration from the work of masters such as Francisco Goya.

    For nearly seven decades, Toledo explored every visual medium imaginable to produce around 9,000 works—from a scorpion sculpture crafted using turtle shells to cloth puppets. Today, his legacy endures in libraries, art institutions, and museums he founded in Oaxaca, many of which are free to enter.

    Happy birthday, Francisco Toledo, and thank you for safeguarding Zapotec Oaxacan heritage for generations to come!

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